Charles Southwell (1814–1860): A Timeline
Charles Southwell (1814-1860), youngest and most controversial son of William Southwell (1736/7–1825) became well known in his day as an outspoken champion of ‘Free Thought’, both as a public speaker and as a writer. When in Bristol in 1841, he achieved notoriety after writing an article entitled ‘The Jew Book’ in the magazine The Oracle of Reason (of which he was the publisher and editor), in which he attacked what he regarded as ‘biblical depravities and inconsistencies’. In consequence he found himself on trial for blasphemy the following year, sentenced to serve a year in prison in Bristol jail and fined £100.
He later wrote many papers relating to Atheism and a selection of these along with publications on his life and work is set out in the Bibliography below.
Brief information on the more personal key events in his life, based on his biographical account in his privately published book The Confessions of a Free Thinker, supplemented by new findings identified by the author during the course of her research, is given in the Timeline below.
|1814||Charles Southwell was born in St. Pancras, London, youngest son of William Southwell (1736/7–1825), musical instrument inventor and maker,and his final partner ‘Fanny’.|
|1825||His father, William Southwell Senior died aged eighty-eight and was buried at St Pancras Old Church. Charles says that he was eleven and a half years old at this time. He began work at the Broadwood factory as a trainee finisher, having turned down James Broadwood’s offer of training to become a tuner.1|
|1826–1830||He soon followed in his father’s footsteps in rejecting Christianity, having read a copy of Timothy Dwight’s Sermons, lent to him by a fellow workman.2
He confesses having led a somewhat dissolute life during his teenage years, living on the edge of poverty and refusing the offer of a home with one of his brothers, being totally unwilling to have any limits placed on his freedom of movement.
Charles Southwell married Mary Seaton (not ‘Seaford’, the thinly disguised pseudonym he gave her in ‘Confessions’) at St Pancras Old Church on 23 July 1831.3 Within a very short time he discovered she was seeing an old flame and she defiantly told him she ‘only married him for a convenience’. His pride deeply wounded, he left her and a few months later began an affair with her aunt (aged thirty three) who tried to persuade him to marry her bigamously, promising not to give him away. Fearful of the consequences of being found out however, he refused. However, they nevertheless co-habited for six months.
Learning that his wife had become depressed and was very sick he agreed to take her back and she recovered. Shortly afterwards, both her parents died.
|1832||At this time he opened his first bookshop in Westminster, specialising in radical socialist literature. It started to do well, he claims, but his wife once more became very sick and the bookshop failed for lack of attention. Soon afterwards his wife’s illness became terminal and she died. [The author has been unable to establish the exact date of Mary’s death, but it was most likely in 1833, given the length of time Charles mentions he had spent living with her aunt].|
|1835||Charles joined a branch of the British Legion and fought in Spain on the side of Queen Isabella against the Carlists for two years. He became very sick and returned to England in 1837.|
|1837||He recounts how he arrived in London penniless in this year and turned for help to his brother William, who he says, was ‘at that time a foreman and contractor working for Broadwood’. Being a kindly man, William welcomed his prodigal brother warmly and took him into his home. Charles returned to work in the Broadwood factory, but soon became involved with Robert Owen’s Socialist Missionary movement, first in London, then in Birmingham. He quickly became well known as an eloquent and impassioned speaker.|
|1839||Interestingly, in the light of his family history, an article in The Times on 29 October 1839 records his involvement in heated discussions on the subject of the unjust abandonment of wives, after an Owenite Lecture in London.4|
|1841||Whilst in Bristol editing a new Socialist publication, The Oracle of Reason, Charles wrote a blistering anti-semitic article “The Jew Book”. He was charged with blasphemy and sent for trial.|
|1842||In January 1842 he was tried and convicted of blasphemy in Bristol, fined £100 and sentenced to a year in prison. He reports that he served thirteen months in Bristol gaol and then returned to London.5|
|1843||The Holyoake archive at the Bishopsgate Institute holds a handbill for a dramatic performances of ‘The Merchant of Venice’, ‘Hamlet’ and ‘The Spitalfields Weaver’, hosted by the Rational Society in celebration of the liberty of Charles Southwell at the Rotunda, Blackfriars Road (7 March 1843).
Refusing to return to editing The Oracle of Reason, instead Charles became editor of a new publication The Investigator, which however quickly foundered.
During this year he embarked on a lecture tour in Scotland.
|1844||In 1844 he took some premises in Charlotte Street, Blackfriars-road and gave lectures there. However, ‘after some time’ he found the premises were very unhealthy, sold the business and became the lessee of the ‘Canterbury Theatre’. This venture was also short lived and he returned to London to manage a lecture hall at Blackfriars.
According to James Secord, during this period he had lived with a married woman named Mrs Gordon (formerly Mrs Rowen).6 This information presumably comes from the writings of Thomas Paterson, whom Charles accuses in ‘Confessions’ of having made a ‘foul attack’ on his second wife.7 In the same publication he later refers to having been with his wife for five years at the time of her death in 1849. In a [unpublished] letter to Holyoake in 1845 he made reference to her thus:
‘Give my best wishes to Mrs. H. and don’t forget to tell my old friend Nockles Mrs. S and I often wish he were safely ensconced in the Paragon drinking our splendid tea and coffee’.8Based on this evidence, it appears he must either have remarried, or at least professed to be married, by that time.
|1849||Though the author has been unable to locate any record of a marriage between the couple, she has identified and obtained a copy of the death certificate of Jane Southwell (wife of Charles Southwell, Gentleman), who died of cancer of the uterus at Webber-street, Blackfriars-road in January 1849.9 This provides clear confirmation that Jane had taken his name and they had been living together as man and wife. When referring to her death, in Confessions, Charles says ‘we lived together and for each other, more than five years, when death snatched from me the dearest friend and kindest companion I ever knew’.|
|1851||In Confessions, Charles says ‘Since her death, [his late wife] I have loved, do love another more intensely than I could love her ...’|
|1852||The author has identified a third (previously unreported) marriage for Charles. On 30 November 1852 he married Mary Ann King, daughter of Robert King, butcher, at St Mary’s Stratford, Bow, Middlesex. Both bride and groom are shown in the parish register entry as being ‘of full age’. The groom’s father’s name and occupation are given as ‘William Southwell, pianoforte maker’.|
|1855||Charles left England, sailing on the British Trident from Liverpool for Australia – but without his wife, Mary Ann, whose name does not appear on the passenger list. The author has been unable to discover what happened to her.
Charles arrived in Melbourne in July and after attempting to embark on a theatrical career (appearing as Shylock in ‘The Merchant of Venice’) he decided to run for election to the Legislature. He was denounced by the Melbourne Press when his views of religion became public knowledge.
|1856||After this debacle, Charles moved on to Sydney and there joined Foley’s theatrical troupe, travelling on with them to Auckland, New Zealand.
After quarrelling with them, he proceeded to found another radical newspaper, the Auckland Examiner.
|1857||Foley’s theatrical company failed in this year and Charles once more tried his hand at theatrical productions, leasing the Theatre Royal – an enterprise which also failed.|
|1859||In 1859 a ‘handsome 7-octave PIANO, Walnut Case, quite new, by [William] Southwell [junior], Baker-street, London’ was advertised in the Daily Southern Cross by Mr. S. Jones for sale at his auction house in Auckland on October 4 and 25, 1859.10 It seems likely that this example of his brother William’s work was sold by Charles, who by then was once more in a very impecunious situation.|
|1860||Charles died on 7 August 1860, after what was described in his death notice as a ‘long and serious illness’. He is buried in Auckland, New Zealand, where his gravestone may be seen.
Some years after his death an interesting account of his activities by W H J Seffert appeared in The New Zealand Herald 3 December 1887.
He left behind a partner, said to have been his widow, Elizabeth Edge. However, the author has been unable to locate a record of any marriage ceremony. Since no trace of his wife Mary Ann has been located, whether or not he had been free to marry again remains an open question.
Bibliography – Selected Works by Charles SouthwellSouthwell, Charles. An Apology for Atheism: Addresssed to Religious Investigators of Every Denomination. London: James Watson, 1846.
Selected articles about Charles SouthwellCooke, Bill. ‘Charles Southwell: New Zealand’s First Freethinker.’ The New Zealand Rationalist & Humanist (Spring 1998).